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Po 的用法

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发表于 2011-9-10 07:07:57 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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<div style="MARGIN-TOP: 0pt; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0pt" class="p0"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"> </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">        <span style="font-family:宋体;">表示平分、分配的介词</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">o</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">只能与数词合用,如:</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">or miaj kvar infanoj mi aĉetis dek du pomojn kaj al ĉiu el la </span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">infanoj</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"> mi donis po tri pomoj (<span style="font-family:宋体;">我给四个孩子买了一打苹果</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">每个孩子发三个〉</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">,Tiu ĉi libro havas sesdek paĝojn; tial, se mi legis en ĉiu tago po dek kvin paĝoj, mi finos la libron en kvar tagoj (</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">这本书共有 六十页。因此,我如果平均每天读了十五页,四天内就将读完全书)。</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">Ni veturis po kvindek kilometroj ( ĉiu ) tage (</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">我们平均每天行驶五十公里)。</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">正如以上例句所指明的,即使是直接宾语以及没有<span style="font-family:Arial;">o </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">时名词应用目的格的时候,</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">po</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">后面也一律用主格。如:</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">Al ĉiu el la infanoj oni donis tri pomojn (</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">大家给每个孩子发了三个苹果〉。介词</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">ĉirkaŭ</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">用作</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">“</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">大约</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">”</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">意义时道理也一样,如:</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">Mi ricevis de li ĉirkaŭ kvindek kronoj (</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">我从他手里得到了大约五十个克朗)。</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">Ni havas jam 40 gekursanojN (</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">我们已经有了</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">40</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">个讲习班学员〉</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">(这句话放在这里干什么啊?)</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">。在这种场合,人们遵循的是介词后面一律用主格的规则。</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">        <span style="font-family:宋体;">但如此一来就出现了动词的直接宾语例外地使用主格不</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">自然</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">的现象,所以许多人还是在<span style="font-family:Arial;">o</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">和</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">ĉirkaŭ</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">后面同样用没有这些介词时的格(参看第</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">47</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">节、第</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">48</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">节)。如:</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">Ĉiutage estis legataj po dek kvin paĝoj (</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">主语)(平均每天读了十五页</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">)</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">。</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">Mi legis ĉiutage po dek kvin paĝojN (<span style="font-family:宋体;">宾语</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">) (</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">我每天读了十五页)</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">。</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">Mi donis al la infanoj Po tri </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">p</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">omojN (<span style="font-family:宋体;">我给孩子们每人平均三个苹果)。</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">En nia klubo estas jam ĉirkaŭ kvindek membroj (</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">主语)</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">&lt;</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">我们俱乐部大约已有了五十个成员</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">)</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">。</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">Nia klubo havas jam ĉirkaŭ kvindek membrojN (</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">宾语〉(我们俱乐部大约已有五 十个成员)。</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">        <span style="font-family:宋体;">有时,</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">o</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">后面也可用方向目的格,如:</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">La servistino kond</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">u</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">kis la gastojn en po unu ĉambroN (<span style="font-family:宋体;">女仆把客人们引进各个房间)。</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">        po<span style="font-family:宋体;">作为前缀可与其他词根连用,如:</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">Ni vendas</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"> </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">pogrande kaj pomalgrande ( podetale )(<span style="font-family:宋体;">我们经营批发和零售)。</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">Li disdonacis pop</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">ec</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">e</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"> </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">sian tutan havaĵon (<span style="font-family:宋体;">他把自已的全部财产一部分一部分地赠送给他人)。</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">onumera</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"> </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">vendado de "Literatura Mondo"(<span style="font-family:宋体;">《文学世界》每期的销售)。</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">        <span style="font-family:宋体;">注</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">:</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">在不影响</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">清楚</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">表达的情况下,完全可避免使用具有斯拉夫语风的<span style="font-family:Arial;">po</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">。如:</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">Al ĉiu el la infanoj mi donis tri </span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">p</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">omojn</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">&#46;</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">我给每个孩子发了三个苹果)。<span style="font-family:Arial;">En</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"> ĉ</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">iu tago mi legos dek kvin paĝojn (<span style="font-family:宋体;">我每天将读十五页)。</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">Ni </span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">veturis </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">kvindek ki</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">l</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">ometrojn</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"> </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">( ĉiu ) tage<span style="font-family:宋体;">(我们每天行驶五十公里</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">)</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">。</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">全文摘自<span style="font-family:Arial;">“</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">世界语中级语法</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">”</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">,《世界语学习编辑部》出版,余海涛译。</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><xml:namespace prefix="o" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-comfficeffice" /><o:p></o:p></span></div>
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-9-10 10:57:22 | 显示全部楼层
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<div style="MARGIN-TOP: 0pt; MARGIN-BOTTOM: 0pt" class="p0"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">O</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  与数饲连用表示事物总量中每一平均份额的数量。</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  用在主语或表语的前面或用作状语,指出数词表示的数量或度量是总量的平均份额。例如:</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">①</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">o kvar glasoj staris antaŭ ĉiu festenanto&#46;</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  〔每个参加宴会的人面前各摆着四个杯子。)</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">②</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">Ili staris en vicoj, po ses en unu vico&#46;</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  〔他们列队站着,每排六人。)</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  用在宾语前面,意义同上。例如:</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">①</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">Al ĉiu li donis po kvin dolarojn&#46; (Z)</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  〔他给每个人各五美元。)</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">②</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">Ili ricevis po kvin pomojn&#46;</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  〔他们每人各得五个苹果。)</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  前置词<span style="font-family:Arial;">po</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">在语法上只支配数词,不支配名词,因此:</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  在语法上不影响名词的格。<span style="font-family:Arial;">po</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">后面的名词作直接宾语时应该用宾格。</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  <span style="font-family:Arial;">[</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">注</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">]</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">:柴门霍夫和不少作者</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">认为</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">,前置词<span style="font-family:Arial;">po</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">对后面的名词没有支配能力,因此当名词作宾语时,名词不用宾袼。例如:</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">①</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">Ili ricevis po kvin pomoj&#46; (Z)</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  〔他们每人得了五个苹果。)</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  <span style="font-family:Arial;">(2)La gastoj trinkis po </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">(省了</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">unu) glaseto da vino&#46; (Z)</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  〔每个客人各喝了一小杯酒。)</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  <span style="font-family:Arial;">(</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">可是是柴门霍夫自己又声明:</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">“</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">在</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">doni po 2 pecojn</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">和</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">doni po 2 pecoj”</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">两种说法之间很难说哪种比较好,因此, 这两种形式都可以用,而且都是好的。</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">)</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  <span style="font-family:Arial;">3&#46;</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">用在状语前面,意义同上。例如:</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  (<span style="font-family:Arial;">1</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">)</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">La kurso daŭras dek tagojn po 30 minutoj&#46;</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  〔讲习班进行十天,每天三十分钟。)</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  (<span style="font-family:Arial;">2</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">)</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">Ni laboras po 8 horoj ĉiutage,</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  〔我们每天工作八小时。)</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  (<span style="font-family:Arial;">3</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">)</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">La gastoj venis po tri&#46;</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  〔客人们三个三个地来到。)</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  <span style="font-family:Arial;">(4)Mi fumis cigaredojn po dudek kopekoj&#46;</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  〔我抽过<span style="font-family:Arial;">(</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">每包</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">)</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">二十戈比的香烟。)</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  【注一】<span style="font-family:Arial;">po</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">只能用在数量等份中的一个等份的那个词之前</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">不能用在数量等份关系到的计量单位的那个词之前。</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">例如:</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  <span style="font-family:Arial;">Li marŝi</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">s </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">po 40 kilometrojn tage&#46;</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  〔</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">他</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">每天走四十公里。)(不能用:<span style="font-family:Arial;">…</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  <span style="font-family:Arial;">40 kilometrojn po tago (tago </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">是</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">"1"</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">的计量单位。)</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  <span style="font-family:Arial;">enmiksi po tri gutoj en glason da akvo </span><span style="font-family:宋体;">(每杯水里加入三滴)(不能用:</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">…tri gutojn po glaso)</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  【注二】斯拉夫人简单地用<span style="font-family:Arial;">po</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">代替</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">po unu</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">,如:</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">Ili trinkis po glaseto&#46;</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">〔他们每人喝了一小杯。)这在语法上是错的,因为</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">po</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">只能关系到</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">unu,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">因此</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">unu</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">不能</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">省略</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">。正确的用法是:<span style="font-family:Arial;">Ili trinkis po unu glaseto&#46;</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  【注三】由于<span style="font-family:Arial;">po</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">后面的数字表示的是许多个等份中的 一份,因此,</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">po</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">之后的数即使是</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">unu</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">,也表示许多个</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">unu, | po unu=pluroble unu</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">。按严格的逻辑来说,这时</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">unu</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">后的名词应用复数形式:</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">unu bukedoj</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">。如果特别强调单数的意思,也可以用单数的形式:</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">unu bukedo&#46;</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">  【注四】在某些情况下,<span style="font-family:Arial;">po</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">后面的名词可以用宾格,表示方向。例如:</span><span style="font-family:Arial;">La servistino kondukis la gastojn po unu </span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">ĉ</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">ambron&#46;<span style="font-family:宋体;">〔女服务员把客人领进单人房间。)</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><br /></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 'Arial'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'">摘自《世界语语法详解》,张丹忱 曹东海著 黄石市世界语协会出版</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: '宋体'; FONT-SIZE: 10&#46;5pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'"><xml:namespace prefix="o" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-comfficeffice" /><o:p></o:p></span></div></div><!--EndFragment--></div>
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