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第一部分 EKZERCOJ -- 1

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发表于 2011-11-6 15:35:23 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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<div class="titoleto" style="MARGIN: 9pt 0cm 6pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: purple; FONT-FAMILY: 'Times New Roman'"><span style="font-size:19px;">§ 1&#46;<xml:namespace prefix="o" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-comfficeffice" /><o:p></o:p></span></span></div>
<div class="indented" style="MARGIN: 6pt 0cm"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: purple; FONT-FAMILY: 'Times New Roman'"><span style="font-size:19px;">atro kaj frato&#46; — Leono estas besto&#46; — Rozo estas floro, kaj kolombo estas birdo&#46; — La rozo apartenas al Teodoro&#46; — La suno brilas&#46; — La patro estas <xml:namespace prefix="st1" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-comffice:smarttags" /><st1:city w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">sana</st1:place></st1:city>&#46; — La patro estas tajloro&#46; <o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div><br />
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-11-6 15:44:24 | 显示全部楼层
原文试译如下:

父亲和兄弟。--- 狮子是野兽。--- 玫瑰是花儿。--- 鸽子是鸟。---  这支玫瑰是泰奥多尔的。--- 太阳照耀着。--- 那个父亲是健康的。--- 那个父亲是裁缝。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-11-6 15:51:31 | 显示全部楼层
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<p><br />部分词汇释义:</p>
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<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 21&#46;1pt; TEXT-INDENT: -21&#46;1pt; mso-char-indent-count: -2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: blue">aparteni:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> (ntr) </span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-size: 13&#46;5pt"><span style="color:#ff0000;">[al]</span></span><span lang="EN-US"> </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">属,归(某人)所有,是…(谁)的</span> </span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 21&#46;1pt; TEXT-INDENT: -21&#46;1pt; mso-char-indent-count: -2&#46;0"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><span style="font-size:19px;"></span></span> </div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 21&#46;1pt; TEXT-INDENT: -21&#46;1pt; mso-char-indent-count: -2&#46;0"><span><xml:namespace prefix="o" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-comfficeffice" /><o:p><span style="font-size:19px;"><strong><span style="color:#00b0f0;">Teodoro</span></strong>  <span style="color:#000000;">泰奥多尔[希腊男子名]</span></span></o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 21&#46;1pt; TEXT-INDENT: -21&#46;1pt; mso-char-indent-count: -2&#46;0"><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: blue"><o:p><span style="font-size:19px;"></span></o:p></span></strong> </div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 21&#46;1pt; TEXT-INDENT: -21&#46;1pt; mso-char-indent-count: -2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: blue"><o:p><span style="font-size:19px;"><strong>Teodora</strong> <span style="color:#000000;">泰奥多拉[希腊女子名]</span></span></o:p></span></div>
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-11-6 15:55:27 | 显示全部楼层
个人体会:

这一段需要注意冠词la的使用。

关于冠词,下面引用王崇芳老师的文章供大家学习参考之用。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-11-6 16:02:21 | 显示全部楼层
<div> </div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: center" align="center"><strong><span style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: red; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">冠词的用法</span></strong><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: red"><xml:namespace prefix="o" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-comfficeffice" /><o:p></o:p></span></strong></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p> </o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p> </o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 18pt; tab-stops: 342&#46;0pt"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">因为<span style="COLOR: purple">世界语中只存在一种冠词</span>,<span style="COLOR: purple">即“定冠词”(</span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: purple">difina artikolo </span><span style="COLOR: purple; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">——表示特指的限定修饰性词类;</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">相对应的是表示泛指的“不定冠词”。这两种冠词都是汉语所没有的),所以我们这里所要讨论的“冠词”当然就只指“定冠词”而言。冠词是世界语中使用频率最高的词之一,也是中国人难以掌握的一个词。冠词的主要用法可以归纳为需要使用冠词和不需要使用冠词的两类情况:</span></span></div><br />
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-11-6 16:03:21 | 显示全部楼层
<div><span style="font-size:19px;"> </span></div><br />
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21&#46;1pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: red">1</span></strong><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="COLOR: red; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">.冠词主要用在下列情况下:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: red"><xml:namespace prefix="o" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-comfficeffice" /><o:p></o:p></span></strong></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p><span style="font-size:19px;"> </span></o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">1</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)<strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="COLOR: red">用在确指的名词前,表示特定的人或物</span></strong>。例如:</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Donu al mi la krajonon&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">请把(那支)铅笔给我。(指眼前的那一支铅笔。试比较:</span><span lang="EN-US">Donu al mi krajonon&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">请给我一支铅笔。)</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Kie estas la gazeto? </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(那份)杂志在哪里?(指当月的或曾经提到过的杂志。请比较:</span><span lang="EN-US">Kie estas gazeto? </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">哪里有杂志?)</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Li donacis al mi vortaron&#46; La vortaro estas tre utila por mi&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">他送给我一本词典。那本词典对我很有用。(第一句中的</span><span lang="EN-US">vortaro</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">是非确指名词,第二句中的</span><span lang="EN-US">vortaro</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">是确指的名词,即第一句中提到的那本,不是任何其他词典。)</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p><span style="font-size:19px;"> </span></o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21&#46;1pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: red">2</span></strong><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="COLOR: red; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)用在单数名词前表示类属;用于复数名词前表示全体。</span></strong><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">例如:</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">La hundo estas besto&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">狗是动物。(这里说的不是具体的某一条狗,而是“狗”这一类别。请比较:</span><span lang="EN-US">Mi vidas hundo&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">我看见一条狗。)</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Nur la homo kapablas paroli&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">只有人才会说话。</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Amu kaj respektu la kuraciston, ĉar li kvietigas viajn suferojn kaj kuracas vin de viaj malsanoj&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">热爱和尊敬医生吧,因为他减轻你的苦痛并给你治病。</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">La fiŝoj vivas en akvo&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">鱼都生活在水中。(复数名词</span><span lang="EN-US">fiŝoj</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">前加有冠词</span><span lang="EN-US">la</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">,表示所有的鱼。请比较:</span><span lang="EN-US">Li aĉetis fiŝojn hieraŭ matene&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">他昨天早晨买了几条鱼。)</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Oni forhakis la arbojn apud la vojo&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">人们把路旁的树全部砍掉了。(请比较:</span><span lang="EN-US">Oni forhakis arbojn apud vojo&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">人们砍掉了某条路旁的一些树。)</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p><span style="font-size:19px;"> </span></o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21&#46;1pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: red">3</span></strong><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="COLOR: red; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)加在单数名词前,表示该名词所表示的事物是独一无二的。</span></strong><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">例如:</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">La suno jam leviĝis&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">太阳已经升起。</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">La ĉielo estas blua&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">天空是蓝色的。</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">En la mondon venis nova sento&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">新的感情来到了人间。</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Mortis la ĉevalo&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">马死了。(指马厩里唯一的一匹马。请比较:</span><span lang="EN-US">Mortis ĉevalo&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">死了一匹马。)</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Ĉiumatene la kapo doloras min&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">我每天早晨头疼。</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Li estas la plej diligenta lernanto en la klaso&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">他是班上最用功的学生。(既然用“最”来形容,只能看作是独一无二的。)</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p><span style="font-size:19px;"> </span></o:p></span></div>
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-11-6 16:05:08 | 显示全部楼层
<div><span style="font-size:19px;"> </span></div><br />
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21&#46;1pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: blue">2</span></strong><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="COLOR: blue; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">.不需要使用冠词的情况:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: blue"><xml:namespace prefix="o" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-comfficeffice" /><o:p></o:p></span></strong></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p><span style="font-size:19px;"> </span></o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: blue">1</span><span style="COLOR: blue; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)专有名词前一般不用冠词。</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">例如:</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Zamenhof </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">柴门霍夫</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Ĉinio </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">中国</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Danubo </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">多瑙河</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Varsovio </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">华沙</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Alpoj </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">阿尔卑斯山</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Doktoro Szilagyi </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">西拉奇博士</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p><span style="font-size:19px;"> </span></o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21&#46;1pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="COLOR: blue; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">但如果专有名词有形容词作修饰语,则需要加冠词。</span></strong><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">例如:</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">la bela Pekino </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">美丽的北京</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">la kvieta Danubo </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">静静的多瑙河</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">la brava Johano </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">勇敢的约翰</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p><span style="font-size:19px;"> </span></o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21&#46;1pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="COLOR: blue; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">然而这也要看具体情况决定是否需要使用冠词。</span></strong><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">请比较下列两句:</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Ŝia frato estas nova Paganini&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">她哥哥是一位新帕格尼尼。(帕格尼尼是十九世纪最著名的小提琴家。这里借用他的名字说明她哥哥小提琴演奏技巧高超。)</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Ŝia frato estas <xml:namespace prefix="st1" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-comffice:smarttags" /><st1:personname w:st="on" productid="la Paganini">la Paganini</st1:personname> de la dudeka jarcento&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">她哥哥是二十世纪的帕格尼尼。</span><span lang="EN-US"> “Paganini”</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">前加了冠词,表明她哥哥是二十世纪唯一能与帕格尼尼媲美的小提琴演奏家。)</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p><span style="font-size:19px;"> </span></o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21&#46;1pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: blue">2</span></strong><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="COLOR: blue; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)物质名词和抽象名词前不用冠词。</span></strong><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">例如:</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Oro estas pli peza ol fero&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">金比铁重。</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Malfeliĉo ofte kunigas homojn, feliĉo disigas ilin&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">不幸常使人聚合,幸福常把人分开。</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p><span style="font-size:19px;"> </span></o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21&#46;1pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="COLOR: blue; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">但是,如果物质名词和抽象名词带有修饰语,则需要加冠词。</span></strong><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">例如:</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">La grandaj malfeliĉoj ĉiam estas silentaj&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">巨大的不幸总是悄然无声的。</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">La ŝtalo el tiu lando estas bona&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">那个国家生产的钢质量好。</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p><span style="font-size:19px;"> </span></o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21&#46;1pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: blue">3</span></strong><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="COLOR: blue; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)在</span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: blue">ĉiu, ĉiuj, ambaŭ, kies, ties, tia, tiu</span></strong><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="COLOR: blue; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">等词的前后或在介词</span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: blue">da</span></strong><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="COLOR: blue; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">的后面,不用冠词。</span></strong><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(举例略)</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p><span style="font-size:19px;"> </span></o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21&#46;1pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: blue">4</span></strong><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="COLOR: blue; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)在</span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: blue">mia, via, lia</span></strong><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="COLOR: blue; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">等物主代词前后不用冠词,但如果物主代词的后面略去名词,则物主代词前需要加冠词(冠词在这种场合下的作用似乎相当于代替一个被省略的名词)</span></strong><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">。例如:</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Ŝia elparolo estas pli bona ol la mia (= … ol mia elparolo)&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">她的发音比我的(发音)好。</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p><span style="font-size:19px;"> </span></o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21&#46;1pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: blue">5</span></strong><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="COLOR: blue; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)最高级副词前不用冠词(这很容易理解:副词的任何形式都不加冠词,但最高级形容词前通常需要用冠词)。</span></strong><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">例如:</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Li kuras plej rapide el ĉiuj&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">他在所有的人中跑得最快。(请比较:</span><span lang="EN-US">Li estas la plej alta el ĉiuj&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">他在所有的人中个子最高。)</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p><span style="font-size:19px;"> </span></o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21&#46;1pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: blue">6</span></strong><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="COLOR: blue; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)呼语前不用冠词。</span></strong><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">例如:</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Atendu momenton, sinjoro&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">先生,请等一下。</span></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p><span style="font-size:19px;"> </span></o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p><span style="font-size:19px;"> </span></o:p></span></div>
<div class="p0" style="TEXT-JUSTIFY: inter-ideograph; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 12pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 20pt; TEXT-ALIGN: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 'Times New Roman'"><o:p><span style="font-size:19px;"> </span></o:p></span></div>
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-11-6 16:13:41 | 显示全部楼层


我的困惑:

大家可以对照一下,看看这段文字里的用法是不是这样。


我发现一个问题:2)用在单数名词前表示类属


这段文字似乎不符合这一规律,我们看看具体句子:
Leono estas besto. — Rozo estas floro, kaj kolombo estas birdo.


这里的名词不都是某一类属吗?为什么没有用冠词呢?柴门霍夫曾经说过,冠词不是必须的。也就是说,需要用的地方,不用也不算错,所以这里当然不能说不对。但是现在在写作中,这一类的大家比较多的用法是怎样的呢?这里的名词前,用还是不用冠词呢?
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-11-7 16:37:37 | 显示全部楼层
这一段出现了人名,刚才看到王崇芳老师网文里,有关于人名的专述,这里贴出与大家共享。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-11-7 16:39:10 | 显示全部楼层
<div> </div><br />
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: center" align="center"><strong><span style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: purple; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-size: 12&#46;0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">世界语中的人名</span></strong><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt; COLOR: purple; mso-bidi-font-size: 12&#46;0pt"><xml:namespace prefix="o" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-comfficeffice" /><o:p></o:p></span></strong></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p> </o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p> </o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">世界语中的“</span><span lang="EN-US">nomo</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”是一个含义笼统的词:它既可以指姓,也可以指名,或者指姓和名。例如我们问一个名叫</span><span lang="EN-US">Roberto Fulton</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(罗伯特·富尔顿)的人“</span><span lang="EN-US">Kia estas via nomo?</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”(请问您的名字),他可以有三种回答方式:</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p> </o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US">Mia nomo estas <xml:namespace prefix="st1" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-comffice:smarttags" /><st1:place w:st="on"><st1:city w:st="on">Fulton</st1:city></st1:place>&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">我姓富尔顿。</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US">Mia nomo estas Roberto&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">我的名字叫罗伯特。</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US">Mia nomo estas Roberto Fulton&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">我叫罗伯特·富尔顿。</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p> </o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="COLOR: purple; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">世界上大多数国家的人名主要由姓和名两部分组成。欧洲大多数国家的姓名排列顺序和中国人名的排列顺序相反:名在前,姓在后。</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">例如</span><span lang="EN-US"> Johano Bull</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">中的</span><span lang="EN-US">Johano</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">是名,</span><span lang="EN-US">Bull</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">是姓。因此,对西方人来说名字就叫做“</span><span lang="EN-US">antaŭnomo</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”,姓叫做“</span><span lang="EN-US">familinomo</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”</span><span lang="EN-US">&#46;</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p> </o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="COLOR: purple; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">在西方,一般来说“</span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: purple">antaŭnomo</span><span style="COLOR: purple; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”是信基督教的父母在小孩接受洗礼(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: purple">bapto</span><span style="COLOR: purple; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)时给孩子起的,所以“</span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: purple">antaŭnomo</span><span style="COLOR: purple; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”通常也称作教名(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: purple">baptonomo</span><span style="COLOR: purple; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)。教名大多数原是基督教圣徒的名字,</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">最常见的男子名有:</span><span lang="EN-US">Johano</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(约翰),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Petro</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(彼得),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Paŭlo</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(保罗),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Jozefo</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(约瑟夫),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Alberto</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(阿尔伯特),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Valenteno</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(瓦伦丁),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Adamo</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(亚当),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Ludoviko</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(路得维克),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Georgo</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(乔治),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Julio</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(尤里),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Nilolao</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(尼古拉),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Aleksandro</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(亚历山大)等。最常见的女子名有:</span><span lang="EN-US">Maria</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(玛丽亚),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Sara</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(莎拉),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Anna</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(安娜),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Elizabeta</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(伊丽莎白),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Marta</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(玛尔塔),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Eva</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(夏娃,也译作艾娃),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Emma</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(艾玛),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Irena</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(伊伦娜),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Sofia</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(索菲娅),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Kristina</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(克里斯蒂娜),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Roza</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(罗莎),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Suzana</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(苏珊娜),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Luiza</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(路易莎),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Flora</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(芙洛拉)等。</span></div>
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