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楼主: anniespera

第一部分 EKZERCOJ -- 1

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 楼主| 发表于 2011-11-7 16:39:41 | 显示全部楼层
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<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="COLOR: red; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">教名在世界语中一般应带有词尾。男子名带有名词词尾“</span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: red">-o</span><span style="COLOR: red; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”,女子名带有形容词词尾“</span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: red">-a</span><span style="COLOR: red; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”,以便区分性别。当然,女子名也有用名词词尾“</span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: red">-o</span><span style="COLOR: red; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”结尾的</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">,如</span><span lang="EN-US">Mario</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(玛丽),</span><span lang="EN-US"> Ifigenio</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(伊菲格涅),</span><span lang="EN-US">Ofelio</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(奥菲利娅)等。</span></div>
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-11-7 16:40:32 | 显示全部楼层
<div> </div><br />
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="COLOR: purple; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">西方人的姓氏比较复杂。姓氏是世代因袭的,因此姓氏常带有家族历史的痕迹</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">。<span style="COLOR: purple">姓氏的含义是多种多样的。有的以职业为姓</span>,例如法语的</span><span lang="EN-US">Marchand</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">马尔尚(商人),</span><span lang="EN-US">Berger</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">贝尔歇(牧羊人),英语的</span><span lang="EN-US">Smith</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">史密斯(铁匠),</span><span lang="EN-US">Miller</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">米勒(磨坊主);<span style="COLOR: purple">有的以居住地或山川城镇为姓</span>,例如法语的</span><span lang="EN-US">Lyonnais</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">利奥内(里昂人),</span><span lang="EN-US">Dubois</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">杜布瓦(森林里的居民),英语的</span><span lang="EN-US">Field</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">菲尔德(原野),</span><span lang="EN-US">Hill</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">希尔(小山);<span style="COLOR: purple">有的以家族的人体特征为姓</span>,例如法语的</span><span lang="EN-US">Legrand</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">勒格朗(大个子),</span><span lang="EN-US">Lebeau</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">勒博(漂亮的),英语的</span><span lang="EN-US">Brown</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">布朗(褐色的),</span><span lang="EN-US">Strong</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">斯特朗(强壮的);<span style="COLOR: purple">有的以动植物名称为姓</span>,例如法语的</span><span lang="EN-US">Renard</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">勒纳尔(狐狸),</span><span lang="EN-US">Fleur</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">弗勒尔(花),英语的</span><span lang="EN-US">Wolf</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">沃尔夫(狼),</span><span lang="EN-US">Drake</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">德雷克(公鸭);<span style="COLOR: purple">有的以家庭关系为姓</span>,例如英语的</span><span lang="EN-US">Johnson</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">约翰逊(约翰的儿子)等。</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><xml:namespace prefix="o" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-comfficeffice" /><o:p> </o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="COLOR: purple; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">由于各种语言中的姓氏比较复杂,词形各异,所以在世界语中姓氏一般应保留民族语的拼写形式,词末不带有世界语词尾</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">,例如上面所提到的“</span><span lang="EN-US">Roberto Fulton</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”和“</span><span lang="EN-US">Johano Bull</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”中的“</span><span lang="EN-US">Fulton</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”和“</span><span lang="EN-US">Bull</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”都不带有词尾。</span></div>
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<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">前面提到,<span style="COLOR: purple">欧洲人的教名一般应采用世界语化的拼写形式(词末带有世界语词尾),但也有人完全按照民族语的拼写形式转写自己的名字。根据名从主人的原则,这当然也是可以的。这就是说,他们的名和姓都可以不带有世界语词尾。</span>例如,世界语诗歌之父波兰人</span><span lang="EN-US">Antoni Grabowski</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">,《世界语插图大词典》(</span><span lang="EN-US">IV</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)的主编法国人</span><span lang="EN-US">Gaston Waringhien</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">,瑞士著名世界者</span><span lang="EN-US">Edmond Privat</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">等人的名字。<span style="COLOR: purple">但姓名按民族语形式拼写</span>,会给世界语者带来读音上的困难,因为即使一个通晓多种外语的人也很难正确读出各种语言中的人名,更不用说不懂外语的普通世界语者了,所以必要的时候最好注上近似的读音,例如匈牙利诗人</span><span lang="EN-US">Baghy</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">按匈牙利语的读音读作“</span><span lang="EN-US">Bagi</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”,上面提到的</span><span lang="EN-US">Waringhien</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">应按法语的读音读作“</span><span lang="EN-US">Varengjen</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”。</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p> </o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">这里需要提一下,<span style="COLOR: purple">欧洲有些国家的人名由三部分组成</span>,例如<span style="COLOR: purple">俄罗斯人的全名一般由本名、父名和姓三部分组成</span>。一个全名叫</span><span lang="EN-US">Иван Иванович Иванов</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(伊万·伊万诺维奇·伊万诺夫)的人,</span><span lang="EN-US">Иван</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(伊万)是他本人的名字,</span><span lang="EN-US">Иванович</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(伊万诺维奇)是他的父名,意为伊万之子,</span><span lang="EN-US">Иванов</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(伊万诺夫)是姓。我曾在“普京和“</span><span lang="EN-US">BBΠ</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”——俄语“国内生产总值”缩写词趣谈”一文中谈到普京总统全名是</span><span lang="EN-US">Владимир Владимирович Путин (Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">,弗拉基米尔·弗拉基米罗维奇·普京</span><span lang="EN-US">)</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">。很凑巧,这三部分的第一个字母</span><span lang="EN-US">B</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">、</span><span lang="EN-US">B</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">、Π合起来,正好和俄语“国内生产总值”的缩写词相同。在俄罗斯人看来,这个巧合也许就是天意:普京总统的当选预示着俄罗斯的“国内生产总值”将会有大幅度提高,俄罗斯人该过上好日子了。于是俄罗斯媒体就常常干脆用“</span><span lang="EN-US">BBΠ</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”来称呼他们的总统。这是题外的话。</span></div>
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-11-7 16:41:16 | 显示全部楼层
<div> </div><br />
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="COLOR: purple; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">按照东方人的习惯,姓名的顺序通常是姓在前,名在后,例如中国、日本、韩国、越南、匈牙利等国人的姓名就是如此</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">。尤利欧·巴基的匈牙利原名是</span><span lang="EN-US">Baghy Gyula</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(</span><span lang="EN-US">Baghy</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">是姓),写成世界语则为“</span><span lang="EN-US">Julio Baghy</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”。</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><xml:namespace prefix="o" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-comfficeffice" /><o:p> </o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="COLOR: purple; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">中国人的姓名依据国家规定应该按汉语拼音方案的规则拼写,姓和名分写,顺序不必颠倒</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">。中国的世界语出版物曾一度按中国报道(</span><em><span lang="EN-US">El POPOLA ĈINIO</span></em><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)杂志社制订的汉世拼音转写方案转写中国的人名。如果姓或名是双音节的,应将两个音节连写。例如:郭沫若</span><span lang="EN-US">Guo Moruo </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(或</span><span lang="EN-US">Gŭo Morŭo</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">),曹雪芹</span><xml:namespace prefix="st1" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-comffice:smarttags" /><st1:personname w:st="on" productid="Cao Xueqin"><span lang="EN-US">Cao Xueqin</span></st1:personname><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(或</span><span lang="EN-US">Caŭ Ŝjŭeĉin</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">),朱德</span><span lang="EN-US">Zhu De </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(或</span><span lang="EN-US">Ĝu De</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">),诸葛亮</span><span lang="EN-US">Zhuge Liang </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(或</span><span lang="EN-US">Ĝuge Ljang</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)。</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p> </o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="COLOR: purple; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">既然中国人的姓名顺序和欧洲人的习惯相反,即姓在前、名在后,中国人的“名”就不能依照西方人的习惯译作“</span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: purple">antaŭnomo</span><span style="COLOR: purple; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”,而只能译作“</span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: purple">persona nomo</span><span style="COLOR: purple; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">。例如一个叫做张大为的人用世界语作自我介绍时,可以这样说:</span><span lang="EN-US">Mia familinomo estas Zhang, kaj mia persona nomo estas Dawei</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">。</span><span lang="EN-US"> </span></div>
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-11-7 16:42:02 | 显示全部楼层
<div> </div><br />
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<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="COLOR: purple; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">日本人的姓名也用汉字书写,但读音和汉语中的汉字不同,因而我们必须按汉字的日语读音而不能按汉语读音来转写日本人的姓名。因受西方习惯的影响,日本人在将自己的名字转写成拉丁字母形式时通常颠倒姓和名的顺序(即把名放在姓的前面)。这一点要注意,以免弄错。</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">例如:</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p> </o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">大平正芳</span><span lang="EN-US"> Masajoŝi Ohira </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(</span><span lang="EN-US">Ohira </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">大平,是姓)</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">桦美智子</span><span lang="EN-US"> Miĉiko Kambo </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(</span><span lang="EN-US">Kambo </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">桦美,是姓)</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p> </o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="COLOR: purple; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">但也有日本人坚持以东方的方式即以姓在前、名在后的顺序转写自己的名字。为了区别姓和名,通常将姓全部大写,名则按首字母大写后面的字母小写的方式转写</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">。例如:</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p> </o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">柴山纯一</span> <span lang="EN-US">SIBAYAMA Zyuniti </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(</span><span lang="EN-US">SIBAYAMA </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">柴山,是姓)</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">宫本正男</span> <span lang="EN-US">MIYAMOTO Masao </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(</span><span lang="EN-US">MIYAMOTO </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">宫本,是姓)</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p> </o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="COLOR: purple; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">其他曾使用过汉字的国家,如朝鲜(包括韩国)、越南等国,人名也不应按汉字的汉语读音而应按它们实际读音和习惯方式来转写,但不必像日本人那样颠倒姓和名的顺序</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">。例如:</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p> </o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">金日成</span><span lang="EN-US"> Kim Il Sung</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">胡志明</span><span lang="EN-US"> Ho-Ĉi-Min</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p> </o:p></span></div>
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-11-7 16:50:25 | 显示全部楼层

附:柴门霍夫在其《语言问答》中对冠词使用的论述。
Pri la uzado de la artikolo

Tute vane vi faras al vi multe da klopodoj kun la uzado de la artikolo. Vi devas memori, ke en nia lingvo la uzado de la artikolo ne estas deviga; sekve la plej bona maniero de agado estas jena: uzu la artikolon tiam, kiam vi scias certe, ke ĝia uzado estas necesa kaj postulata de la logiko, sed en ĉiuj dubaj okazoj tute ĝin ne uzu. Pli bone estas ne uzi la artikolon en tia okazo, kiam ĝi estas necesa, ol uzi ĝin tiam, kiam la logiko kaj la kutimoj de ĉiuj popoloj ĝin malpermesas. Se vi ekzemple diros &laquo;venis tago, kiun mi tiel longe atendis&raquo;, via frazo estos ne tute bonstila, sed ne rekte erara, kvankam oni devus tie ĉi diri &laquo;la tago&raquo;; sed se vi diros &laquo;hodiaŭ estas la dimanĉo&raquo; anstataŭ &laquo;hodiaŭ estas dimanĉo&raquo;, tiam vi faros rekte eraron, kiu estos malagrabla por la oreloj de ĉiu bona Esperantisto.

Respondo 2, La Revuo, 1906, Decembro
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-11-8 17:40:03 | 显示全部楼层
<div> </div>
<p><br />有位老师对上述文字做了汉译,现贴出与大家分享(部分文字做了调整):</p>
<p> </p>
<p> </p>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="BACKGROUND: #e3f1d1; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; WORD-BREAK: break-all; TEXT-INDENT: 12pt; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-pagination: widow-orphan" align="left"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span style="color:#7030a0;"><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-size: 10&#46;5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'mso-hansi-font-family:'; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体">你花这么多的精力在冠词的使用上,是毫无意义的。不要忘了,在世界语里,冠词的使用并非强制性的。所以最好的办法就是:当你确有把握,认为使用是必要的,而且是合符逻辑的,这个时候你才使用冠词;在任何有疑问的情况下,都不要使用。在该用冠词的时候,你不用,要比违背各民族的逻辑和习惯的情况下使用冠词要好得多。假如你说“</span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; mso-bidi-font-size: 10&#46;5pt; mso-font-kerning: 0pt">venis tago, kiun mi tiel longe atendis&#46;</span><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-size: 10&#46;5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'mso-hansi-font-family:'; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体">”,这个句子并没有多大的问题,虽然在文笔上有些许的欠缺——按理说,“</span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; mso-bidi-font-size: 10&#46;5pt; mso-font-kerning: 0pt">tago</span><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-size: 10&#46;5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'mso-hansi-font-family:'; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体">”前是要加“</span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; mso-bidi-font-size: 10&#46;5pt; mso-font-kerning: 0pt">la</span><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-size: 10&#46;5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'mso-hansi-font-family:'; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体">”的。但如果把“</span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; mso-bidi-font-size: 10&#46;5pt; mso-font-kerning: 0pt">hodiaŭ estas dimanĉo&#46;</span><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-size: 10&#46;5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'mso-hansi-font-family:'; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体">”说成了“</span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; mso-bidi-font-size: 10&#46;5pt; mso-font-kerning: 0pt">hodiaŭ estas </span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: red; mso-bidi-font-size: 10&#46;5pt; mso-font-kerning: 0pt">la</span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; mso-bidi-font-size: 10&#46;5pt; mso-font-kerning: 0pt"> dimanĉo&#46;</span><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-size: 10&#46;5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'mso-hansi-font-family:'; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体">”,那就犯了大错,因为,这对所有有经验的世界语者来说,都是不顺耳的。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-size: 10&#46;5pt; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体"> <xml:namespace prefix="o" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-comfficeffice" /><o:p></o:p></span></span></span></div>
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