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王崇芳《世界语实用中级课本》--第7课 课文补充注释

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发表于 2011-12-2 11:03:00 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: center" align="center"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt">A<xml:namespace prefix="o" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-comfficeffice" /><o:p></o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US">1&#46; Iafoje la paciento devas ricevi X-radian ekzamenon&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">患者有时必须接受</span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: red">X</span><span style="COLOR: red; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">线</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">检查。</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US">X-radio </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">爱克斯射线(世界语读作</span><span lang="EN-US">ikso-radio</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)“爱克斯”是英文读法。由于我国长期受英语影响,群众习惯按英语字母的名称来读拉丁字母。世界语字母表中虽然没有</span><span lang="EN-US">q</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">、</span><span lang="EN-US">w</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">、</span><span lang="EN-US">x</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">、</span><span lang="EN-US">y</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">这四个字母,但它们在数学或其他学科中常可作符号使用,因此世界语者者有必要给它们规定统一的名称。在世界语中它们分别读为</span><span lang="EN-US">kuo</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">,</span><span lang="EN-US">duobla vo</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">,</span><span lang="EN-US">ikso</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">和</span><span lang="EN-US">igreka</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(或</span><span lang="EN-US">ipsilono</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)。</span></div>
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<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US">2&#46; kuracilo</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">指一切治疗手段,包括药物、理疗、针炙等。</span></div>
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<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US">3&#46; Se viaj dentoj vin doloros&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">如果你牙疼……</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">请注意句中动词</span><span lang="EN-US">dolori</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">的用法。再如:</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US">Mia stomako min doloras&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">我胃痛。(有时宾语可以省略,如课文</span><span lang="EN-US">B</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">中的句子:</span><span lang="EN-US">mi tusetas, ofte ternas, kaj mia gorĝo doloras&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">我轻度咳嗽,常打喷嚏,喉咙疼。)</span></div>
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<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US">4&#46; Se viaj okuloj ne bone vidos, vi iros al okulisto, kiu zorge ekzamenos vian vidadon, por scii, ĉu vi suferas je miopeco aŭ malmiopeco, kaj skribos preskribon, laŭ kiu vi havigos al vi taŭgajn okulvitrojn&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">如果你的视力不好,你就得去找眼科医生,他将仔细检查你的视力,看看你是近视还是远视,然后开出处方,按照处方你将给自己配一副合用的眼镜。</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">这是一个结构比较复杂的复合句,主句是“</span><span lang="EN-US">vi iros al okulisto</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”,前面的“</span><span lang="EN-US">se&#46;&#46;&#46;</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”是条件状语从句。</span><span lang="EN-US">okulisto</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">后用关系代词</span><span lang="EN-US">kiu</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">引出一个非限制性的关系从句,这种关系从句实际可以写成另外一句(</span><span lang="EN-US">La okulisto zorge ekzamenos&#46;&#46;&#46;</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)。关系从句中有两个谓语动词(</span><span lang="EN-US">ekzamenos</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">和</span><span lang="EN-US">skribos</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)</span><span lang="EN-US">; por scii</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">是第一个谓语动词的目的状语,后面的</span><span lang="EN-US">ĉu&#46;&#46;&#46; aŭ&#46;&#46;&#46;</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">是动词不定式</span><span lang="EN-US">scii</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">的宾语从句;“</span><span lang="EN-US">laŭ kiu&#46;&#46;&#46;</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”是</span><span lang="EN-US">preskribon</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">的非限制性关系从句。从语法结构看,这个句子虽然复杂,但结构相当严谨。</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US">suferi</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">作不及物动词用时是“受(痛苦)”、“患(病)”,它的间接宾语要作介词</span><span lang="EN-US">je</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">或</span><span lang="EN-US">de</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">引出。例如:</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US">Ŝi suferas je infekta malsano&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">她患传染病。</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US">Li suferas de soifo&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">他非常口渴。</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US">suferi</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">作及物动词用时,作“忍受”、“遭受”讲。例如:</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US">Li suferis malsaton&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">他忍饥挨饿。</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><xml:namespace prefix="st1" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-comffice:smarttags" /><st1:place w:st="on"><span lang="EN-US">Ili</span></st1:place><span lang="EN-US"> suferis grandajn perdojn&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">他们遭受很大损失。</span></div>
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<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US">5&#46; &#46;&#46;&#46; por ke li ne infektu aliajn homojn je la malsano per spirado, kontakto ktp&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">以免他通过呼吸、接触等渠道将这种病传染给别人。</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">请注意“</span><span lang="EN-US">infekti iun je ia malsano per io</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”(通过某种途径把某种病传染给某人)的句式。例如:</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US">Li infektis la infanon je ftizo per sia tuso&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">他通过呼吸将肺结<span style="color:#ff0000;">核</span>传染给这个孩子。</span></div></div>
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-12-2 11:05:32 | 显示全部楼层
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: center" align="center"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt">B<xml:namespace prefix="o" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-comfficeffice" /><o:p></o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US">1&#46; Vizito al la Kuracisto</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">这是由不定式词组“</span><span lang="EN-US">viziti la kuraciston</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”将不定式改成名词而构成的名词性词组。这里使用介词</span><span lang="EN-US">al</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">而不用</span><span lang="EN-US">de</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">,因为</span><span lang="EN-US">de</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">可能有两种理解:</span><span lang="EN-US">a) la kuracisto</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">是</span><span lang="EN-US">vizito</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">的逻辑主语(相当于</span><span lang="EN-US">la kuracisto vizitas</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)。为了避免歧义,所以这里用</span><span lang="EN-US">al</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">而不用</span><span lang="EN-US">de</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">。(请参阅课本第六课课文注释</span><span lang="EN-US">A - 13&#46;</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p> </o:p></span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US">2&#46; Nu, tenu tiel vian langon, ĝis mi finos por vi la preskribon&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">好,就这样伸着舌头,直到我给你开好处方为止。(</span><span lang="EN-US">ĝis</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">在句中作从属连词)</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US">ĝis</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">既可作介词,也可作从属连词。区别在于:</span><span lang="EN-US">ĝis</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">的后面如果是名词,则是介词;如果是从句,则是连词。例如:</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US">Ĉiunokte mi dormas tiel profunde, ke mi ne vekiĝas ĝis la mateno&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">我每天夜里睡得很熟,一直睡到天亮才醒。(</span><span lang="EN-US">ĝis</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">加在名词</span><span lang="EN-US">la mateno</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">前,所以是介词)</span></div>
<div class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><span lang="EN-US">Mi atendos, ĝis li venos&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">我将一直等到他来。(</span><span lang="EN-US">ĝis</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">的后面是句子“</span><span lang="EN-US">li venos</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”,所以</span><span lang="EN-US">ĝis</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">是从属连词)</span></div>
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