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王崇芳《世界语实用中级课本》--第8课 补充注释

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发表于 2012-1-5 15:33:29 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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<div style="TEXT-ALIGN: center; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt" class="MsoNormal" align="center"><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; FONT-SIZE: 15pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">第八课补充注释</span></strong><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 15pt" lang="EN-US"><xml:namespace prefix="o" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-comfficeffice" /><o:p></o:p></span></strong></div>
<div style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt" class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p> </o:p></span></div>
<div style="TEXT-ALIGN: center; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt" class="MsoNormal" align="center"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt" lang="EN-US">A<o:p></o:p></span></div>
<div style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt" class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p> </o:p></span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">1&#46; Tre malgaja li poste eksidis sur la riverbordo kaj akre plendis pri sia malfeliĉa sorto&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">然后他悲伤地在岸边坐下用尖锐的语言抱怨自己不幸的命运。</span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">malgaja </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">是状语性表语。状语性表语是一种既与主语又与谓语动词有语法关系的一种表语,用来说明主语在执行某一动作时的状况。</span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">2&#46; Subite Merkurio elakviĝis, kaj post kiam li aŭdis, kio okazis al la malriĉulo, li subakviĝis, kaj tuj poste ree elakviĝis kun ora hakilo en la mano&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">墨丘利突然从水中出来,</span> <span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">他听了那个穷人的遭遇后,就潜入水中,然后又立刻手拿一把金斧子从水中出来。</span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">表示“某人发生了什么事”要用“</span><span lang="EN-US">okazi al</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”来表达。例如:</span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">Kio okazis al vi? </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">你出了什么事?(或:你怎么啦?)</span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">En la lasta aŭtuno io malfeliĉa okazis al lia familio&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">去年秋天他家发生了一件不幸的事。</span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">el-akv-iĝ-i, sub-akv-iĝ-i </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">的构词方式与</span><span lang="EN-US"> en-lit-iĝ-i, el-lit-iĝ-i </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">相同。</span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">“</span><span lang="EN-US">kun ora hakilo en la mano</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”(手拿金斧)是一种结构为“介词</span><span lang="EN-US">+</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">名词</span><span lang="EN-US">+</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">介词</span><span lang="EN-US">+</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">名词”的介词词组(请参阅第十一课的语法)。</span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">3&#46; okazintaĵo </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">已经发生的事,</span><span lang="EN-US">okazontaĵo </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">将要发生的事,</span><span lang="EN-US">okazantaĵo </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">正在发生的事。如果不需要精确地加以区别,以上三种形式都可以用</span><span lang="EN-US">okazaĵo</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">代替。</span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">4&#46; dio</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">的意思是“神”,指一般的神,可以有复数形式;作“上帝”讲时开头字母必须大写(不可以有复数形式)。</span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">5&#46; ricevi</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">和</span><span lang="EN-US">akcepti</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">的区别:</span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">ricevi</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">的意思是“收到”、“接到”,它所表示的行为不取决于当事人的主观意愿,而且当事人对所收的物品也没有选择的余地。例如:</span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">Mi ricevis leteron de mia onklo&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">我收到叔叔的一封信。</span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">Li ricevis inviton al la balo&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">他接到参加舞会的邀请。</span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><xml:namespace prefix="st1" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-comffice:smarttags" /><st1:place w:st="on"><span lang="EN-US">Ili</span></st1:place><span lang="EN-US"> ricevis ordonon&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">他们接到一道命令。</span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">Ŝi ricevis laŭdon&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">她受到表扬。</span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">Ĝoje la honestulo ricevis sian propraĵon el la mano de Merkurio&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">这个诚实的人高高兴兴地从墨丘利手中接过自己的东西。</span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">akcepti</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">的意思是“接受”,即经过考虑后同意收下。它所表示的行为是由当事人的主观意愿决定的,表达了接受人的态度和接受的方式。</span><span lang="EN-US">akcepti</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">还可以作“接待”讲。例如:</span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">Ŝi akceptis mian donacon&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">她接受了我的礼物。</span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">Oni akceptis lian teorion&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">人们接受了他的理论。</span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">Akceptu mian plej koran dankon&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">请接受我的最衷心的感谢。</span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">Li ricevis la inviton, sed li ĝin ne akceptis&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">他收到了邀请,但没有接受。</span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">Ni varme akceptis alilandajn amikojn&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">我们热情地接待了几位外国朋友。</span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">Merkurio baldaŭ reaperis portante arĝentan hakilon, sed ankaŭ tiun la arbohakisto ne akceptis&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">不一会儿墨丘利拿着一把银斧子重又出现,但樵夫也没有接受那把斧子。</span></div></div>
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-1-5 15:39:59 | 显示全部楼层
<div><strong><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12px;">
</span></strong><div style="TEXT-ALIGN: center; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt" class="MsoNormal" align="center"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; FONT-SIZE: 14pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">B</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 14pt" lang="EN-US"><xml:namespace prefix="o" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-comfficeffice" /><o:p></o:p></span></span></div>
<div style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt" class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p><span style="font-size:19px;"> </span></o:p></span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">1&#46; Vere estas bone, ke vi bonvolis veni al la stacidomo&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">您到车站来接我们,真太好了。</span></span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">bonvoli </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">是一个表示客气语气的动词。意思是“有善意”、“惠然肯”、“乐于”做某事。例如:</span></span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Ni dankas vin, ke vi bonvolis veni al nia urbo&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">我们感谢您惠临我市。</span></span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:19px;"><xml:namespace prefix="st1" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-comffice:smarttags" /><st1:place w:st="on"><span lang="EN-US">Ili</span></st1:place><span lang="EN-US"> bonvolos akcepti lin&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">他们将乐于接待他。</span></span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">bonvolu </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">或</span><span lang="EN-US"> bonvole</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">还可以作“请”讲。(参见第四课语法“动词不定式”)</span></span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">2&#46; En nia vagono ni havis agrablajn kunvojaĝantojn, kiuj interesiĝis pri nia verda kvinpinta stelo&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">我们在车厢里遇到了几位非常好的旅伴,他们对绿五角星很感兴趣。</span></span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">interesi</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">是及物动词,意思是“使感兴趣”。例如:</span></span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Tiu demando certe interesos vin&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">这个问题肯定会引起你的兴趣。</span></span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Esperanto ja interesus ankaŭ min, se ĝin mi nur lernus&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">只要我学,世界语也会使我感兴趣的。</span></span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">如果我们要说“对…感兴趣”,则应该用“</span><span lang="EN-US">interesiĝi pri</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”。例如:</span></span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">Ŝi interesiĝas pri la libro&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><span style="COLOR: red">她</span>对这本书感兴趣。</span></span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">3&#46; &#46;&#46;&#46; li, mi supozas, parolis pri ĝi al aliaj&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">…因为,我猜想,他可能在向别人介绍世界语。</span></span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">“</span><span lang="EN-US">mi supozas</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”在句中是插入语。(插入语在句中不和其他成分发生语法关系。)</span></span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">aliaj = aliaj homoj </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">(</span><span lang="EN-US">aliaj</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">在这里作代词使用,意思是“其他人”、“别的人”)</span></span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21&#46;1pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:19px;"><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="COLOR: purple" lang="EN-US">4&#46; </span></strong><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; COLOR: purple; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">为了帮助学员学习和欣赏两课的两首短诗,下面将世界语诗歌的最基本的知识向大家简单介绍一下:</span><span style="COLOR: purple" lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></strong></span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">a&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">诗行和诗段:一行诗叫做诗行。诗行是诗的最小组成单位。若干诗行组成一个诗段;一首诗可以只包含一个诗段,也可以包含两个或多个诗段,例如本课的两首诗中第一首是由两个诗段组成的,第二首只包含一个诗段。</span></span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">b&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">一首好诗从形式到内容都必须是美的。世界语诗歌的形式美,在于节奏、音节数和韵脚三个方面的和谐统一。</span></span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">c&#46; </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">节奏是诗<span style="COLOR: red">歌</span>中轻重音有规律地交替。音节数是指每个诗行所包含的音节数目。韵脚是指相邻两个诗行末尾的最后一个重读元音及其后各字母的一致。例如本课第一首“</span><span lang="EN-US">Arb’ mi estas &#46;&#46;&#46;</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”中的每一偶数诗行各由十个和九个音节组成,音节数很整齐。这首诗的每个诗行的音节都是按“重轻重轻…”的方式安排的,每个交替的“重轻”单位叫做“音步”(相当于音乐中的小节;音步有各种类型,除了“重轻”格式外,还有“轻重”、“重轻轻”等格式),所以每个十音节的诗行都是由五个音步组成的。这首诗偶数诗行押韵:</span><span lang="EN-US">gut’ – tut’, mi – mi</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">,这种以重读音节结尾的韵脚叫做阳韵。重读音节连同其后的轻读音节所押的韵叫做阴韵(如:</span><span lang="EN-US">flamon – amon</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)。</span></span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span lang="EN-US">5&#46; El la hungara </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">译自匈牙利语</span></span></div>
<div style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:19px;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">介词“</span><span lang="EN-US">el</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">”可以作“选自”、“译自”讲。</span></span></div></div>
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